Shirley Jackson had already written two masterpieces of psychological horror, The Bird’s Nest (1954) and The Sundial (1954), when she took on what would become generally regarded as her finest work, The Haunting of Hill House (1959). According to Jackson herself, the inspiration came from an article she read concerning a group of 19thcentury psychic researchers who rented an alleged haunted house for study. Jackson set to work on a tale whose principal antagonist would be a house with a malevolent character and purpose all its
In this story, the planet Roland has been settled for many years, but large portions of its interior have never been mapped let alone visited. There have been persistent rumors of sightings of unusual, nonhuman lifeforms called the Outlings, but there is no objective evidence that these exist—at least not until Barbro Cullen’s young son is stolen from their camp while she is accompanying
Frank Morrison “Mickey” Spillane had already established himself as a comic book and pulp writer (he helped develop the characters of Captain Marvel and Captain America) when he created his most celebrated (and notorious) character, detective Mike Hammer in I, the Jury in 1947. Ten more Hammer adventures followed, the cycle ending in 1970 with Survival … Zero! Called by various commentators “a fascist,” “a paranoid,” even a “latent homosexual,” Hammer is a “hard-boiled dick” who never backs away from violence, with men
The novel Porgy (1925), by the white Charlestonian DuBose Heyward, was the first major southern novel to portray African Americans in an honest, straightforwardway, rather than hew to the nineteenthcentury stereotypes of shiftless darkies or faithful servitors. The novel caused a sensation in the South, where many readers reacted negatively to Heyward’s progressive views, and was uniformly applauded in the North, especially by intellectual circles in Harlem, where Heyward was seen as a leading light in the literary depiction of
Neo-Kantian ethics refers to any philosophical work that derives from the work of Immanuel Kant. Contemporary scholars in this area seek to advance key insights of Kant with the tools of contemporary analytic philosophy while at the same time avoiding difficulties that may be found in some of Kant’s original arguments. Such work is increasingly used to provide a theoretical foundation for business ethics. There are many active areas of interest in this vibrant field. Regarding ethical motivation, neo- Kantians defend the view that such motivation properly originates within the self, and not from external sources
Logical positivism is a school of philosophy, originating in Vienna during the 1920s and 1930s, that claimed that “real” knowledge is based on logical consistency and empirical verifiability. If either condition is contravened, the claim to knowledge is spurious or “nonsense.” But if both conditions are met, truth is guaranteed.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778)
Swiss-born philosopher, author, political scientist, musicologist and one of the most influential minds in the so-called Age of Enlightenment. In the field of education, his novel Emile, ou l’Education (1762) was one of the most influential documents in 18th- and 19th-century education, offering a new theory of education based on the principles of natural child development and the futility of attempting to treat children as small adults. In the novel, the boy Emile learns by experience and natural observation, using his senses to acquire new
The term historically used for the concept of other worlds, possibly inhabited, beyond the earth. The concept had its origin with the ancient Greek atomists Leucippus (fl. 5th century B.C.E.), Democritus (fl. late 5th century. B.C.E.), and Epicurus (341–270 B.C.E.), who held that an infinite number of kosmoi existed, while Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.) argued for a single kosmos, with kosmos defined as everything in the visible world, including all celestial bodies. For both Aristotle and the atomists, their diametrically opposed conclusions were based on the physical principles of their cosmologies.
David Hume’s The Natural History of Religion (1757) is the most influential eighteenth-centuryhumanistic theory of religion. In composing a “nat-ural history” of religion, Hume brings religiousphenomena within the purview of science. As part of his larger project to create a science of humannature, Hume seeks both to isolate the causes ofreligion in human nature and to identify the con-sequences of religion in light of human nature. Notonly does Hume consider religion a fit object forscientific investigation, he also theorizes that
Plato (428–347 B.C.E.), born in Athens, was a philosopher and founder of a school, the Academy. He was a student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle. Apart from a few letters, Plato’s writing consists entirely of dialogues. These philosophical dramas display a mastery of composition, character, and action that rank him among the best of ancient poets. The range of philosophical