The Queen of Air and Darkness

The Queen of Air and Darkness  by Poul Anderson (1971) In this story, the planet Roland has been settled for many years, but large portions of its interior have never been mapped let alone visited. There have been persistent rumors of sightings of unusual, nonhuman lifeforms called the Outlings, but there is no objective evidence […]

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778) Swiss-born philosopher, author, political scientist, musicologist and one of the most influential minds in the so-called Age of Enlightenment. In the field of education, his novel Emile, ou l’Education (1762) was one of the most influential documents in 18th- and 19th-century education, offering a new theory of education based on the principles […]

Plurality of Worlds

Plurality of Worlds The term historically used for the concept of other worlds, possibly inhabited, beyond the earth. The concept had its origin with the ancient Greek atomists Leucippus (fl. 5th century B.C.E.), Democritus (fl. late 5th century. B.C.E.), and Epicurus (341–270 B.C.E.), who held that an infinite number of kosmoi existed, while Aristotle (384–322 […]

Early Humanism

Early Humanism David Hume’s The Natural History of Religion (1757) is the most influential eighteenth-centuryhumanistic theory of religion. In composing a “nat-ural history” of religion, Hume brings religiousphenomena within the purview of science. As part of his larger project to create a science of humannature, Hume seeks both to isolate the causes ofreligion in human […]

Dialogues of Plato

Plato Plato (428–347 B.C.E.), born in Athens, was a philosopher and founder of a school, the Academy. He was a student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle. Apart from a few letters, Plato’s writing consists entirely of dialogues. These philosophical dramas display a mastery of composition, character, and action that rank him among the […]

William Godwin

William Godwin Though the term ‘anarchism’ was not used in a positive sense until 1840, by the French writer PIERRE-JOSEPH PROUDHON, William Godwin is regarded as the founder of philosophical anarchism. Born at Wisbech on 7 March 1756, Godwin was raised by a strict Baptist father, and became a Sandemanian Baptist minister in 1778. By […]


Transcendentalism The most important movement in the first half of the nineteenth century that was both philosophical and theological, and dealt with social issues was Transcendentalism. Its foremost spokesperson was RALPH WALDO EMERSON (1803–82), who, after Edwards and Franklin, was among the earliest US thinkers to have a contemporary influence outside the USA. In addition […]

Saint Augustine

Saint Augustine (354–430) Augustine was born in what is now Tunisia, at that time part of the Roman Empire. He taught in Rome, studied Neoplatonic philosophy, was converted to Christianity in 386, and returned to Africa, where he became a bishop. His immense literary output molded the thinking of the Church ever afterwards. Best known […]

A Tale of Two Cities

A Tale of Two Cities (1859) is a novel by Charles Dickens, set in London and Paris before and during the French Revolution. With well over 200 million copies sold, it ranks among the most famous works in the history of fictional literature. It is a love triangle novel. The novel depicts the plight of […]

A Mother Forever

My beloved children both my son and daughter returned back to New York yesterday. This has been a bittersweet summer to say the least. I learned many things about motherhood, patience, and tolerance. It’s definitely not easy being a mother of 4 on a fulltime basis. I have no idea how moms do it everyday, […]